All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), Russia

Founded in 1954, VNIIA is one of the three nuclear weapons designer in Russia. In Jan 2010, VNIIA took charge over Research Institute of Pulse Technique (NIIIT). NIIIT was founded in 1961, as a facility of the atomic industry specifically devoted to development of measurement technique and hardware for nuclear testing at Defense test sites as well as for monitoring nuclear tests at the foreign test sites.

All products designed in VNIIA are tested in laboratory and in field, and are maintained and supported throughout the whole life cycle. These include:
* High-voltage and super high-current electro-physical devices
* Complex mechanisms, pneumatic and hydraulic devices
* Components subjected to intense mechanical, heat, and radiation loads
* Special-purpose electro-vacuum devices and semiconductors
* Transformers of electromagnetic, gamma, x-ray, neutron, and optical signal into the electrical ones
* Detectors of fast physical processes with short-time resolution
* Special-purpose firmware and applied software

The products and devices also incorporate up-to-date materials that include:
* Solid, liquid and gas dielectrics
* Magnetic, piezoelectric, optical and other materials with the set-up properties

Defense Sphere
Major activities include development of:
* Nuclear weapons for the strategic and tactical platforms
* Firing and neutron initiation systems for the nuclear weapons
* Non-nuclear components and automatics for the nuclear weapons
* Nuclear explosion monitoring equipment
* Unified test and measurement equipment
* Hardware and methods for measurement of the nuclear charge parameters during the experimenting activities
VNIIA is the only designed of the firing and neutron initiation systems for the nuclear charges.

Civil Sphere
Developed various types of devices based on expertise of weapons technology:
1. Automatic Process Control Systems (APCS) for thermal and nuclear power plants and industry based on the software & hardware of the TPTS type is the largest non-defense area. APCS was created on the platform under the license from Siemens. The Control Systems produced by VNIIA comply with the most stringent international requirements and compete with the similar systems on the world market (Emersson, ABB, etc). There are major advantages of control systems produced by VNIIA. Operational at dozens of Heat & Nuclear power plants in Russia and abroad. Total power generated at plants with TPTS equipment is 13300 MW.
2. Pressure Transducers and Relays for automated processes control systems in petroleum, chemical and atomic industry. Products are certified as explosion-proof and have the application permission from the environmental, technological and atomic oversight authorities.
Currently over 100000 pressure transducers and relays are in operation in the facilities of petroleum industry.
There are common industrial version of the transducers with explosion protection, the versions for Gazprom, Transneft and other facilities of the petroleum industry, and the version for NPP.
3. X-ray Equipment for :
* Radiography and radioscopy in the stationary and field environment
* Non-destructive control of material and products, welding joints and casts using radiography and radioscopy
* Luggage and post inspection
* Medicine (digital radiographic scanners)
The x-ray equipment designed by VNIIA is remarkable for:
* Small weight and overall dimensions
* Electric safety
* Wide operating range (temperature, humidity, mechanical load)
The specifications are:
* Weight 2.5 to 15 kgs
* Quantum energy 50 to 300 keV
* Power at the anode 50 to 4000 W
4. Portable Pulsed Neutron Generators and Generator driven Equipment for various applications with the neutron radiation of a wide range of parameters.
- For activation analysis equipment (ING-013, 03, 031, 07, 17, 27)
- For physical research applications (ING-10, 12, 102, 103, 104)
- For logging equipment (ING-10-20-120, 10-20-150, 061, 08)
- Pulsed neutron logging equipment (AINK-43, 89, 89S) - designed for exploration well profiles of oil-and-gas deposits using pulsed neutron-neutron and neutron-gamma logging methods.
- Ore boreholes pulsed neutron logging equipment (AINK-60) - designed for direct measurement of natural uranium content in radioactive ore boreholes filled with underground water, low acid and low alkaline solutions or drilling fluid.
The neutron generators and hardware systems based on them have many applications such as:
* Petroleum and uranium well-logging
* Monitoring of the industrial processes, certification of products
* Detection and identification of HE and toxic agents
* Neutron therapy
* Neutron radiography and tomography
* Research of the physics of the nuclear reactors and the fuel assemblies
* Detection and monitoring of the nuclear materials
* Scientific research
VNIIA neutron generators have the unique specs:
* Neutron yield upto 10^11 neutron/s
* Pulse duration 0.01 micro sec to 10 ms
* Pulse frequency from single upto 10 kHz
Supplied to USA, UK, Germany, China, Japan, Italy, Israel, South Korea, CIS countries, etc
5. Dosimetry, Spectrometry and Radiometry Equipment: Both for monitoring and control of the pulsed sources of the ionizing radiation produced at VNIIA, and the for the application in the nuclear material physical protection, control and accounting systems.
One of the main goals of the system is to prevent theft of nuclear and radioactive materials (NRM) attractive for terrorists, the nuclear weapons design or capable of contaminating the environment. To fulfill this goal, different equipment developed at VNIIA is applied: radiation monitors with the high sensitivity to the uranium and plutonium, the equipment for the detection and identification of the isotopic consumption and weight of the nuclear material using neutron and gamma radiation.
There are two types of such equipment:
* Portal, which are designed for the detection of the radiation that is higher than the natural background in different objects (pedestrians, transport, luggage, mail, common and industrial waste and materials, etc)
* Hand-held, which are designed for the inspection of the suspicious items, detected by the portal radiation monitor, and for the inspections of the buildings and the environment to detect the radioactive contamination
The hand-held radiation monitors are capable of detecting 0.03 g of Pu-239 and 0.3 g of U-235.
The equipment produced at VNIIA has several remarkable features.
6. Equipment for detection of fast processes:
* X-ray chronographic electronic-optic detector
* Chronographic electronic-optic detector
* Detectors of the pulsed neutrons and the gamma rays
* Electro-vacuum devices for the scintillation detectors and electronic-optical detectors
* Shock-proof multi-channel detector
* Multi-channel analog-to-digital converter
* Digital TV detector
7. Arc protection equipment for power generation industry. Under operation at several dozens of power generating facilities including nuclear power plants.
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